Turkish Alphabet

The Turkish alphabet consists of 29 letters, each with its own distinct sound. Here is the Turkish alphabet with the uppercase and lowercase letters:

Uppercase : A , B , C , Ç , D , E , F , G , Ğ , H , I , İ , J , K , L , M , N , O , Ö , P , R , S , Ş , T , U , Ü , V , Y , Z
Lowercase : a , b , c , ç , d , e , f , g , ğ , h , ı , i , j , k , l , m , n , o , ö , p , r , s , ş , t , u , ü , v , y , z

Letter (Uppercase) Letter (Lowercase) Phonetic Transcription Pronunciation NATO phonetic alphabet Letter Morse Code
A a /a/ father Alfa .-
B b /b/ bat Bravo -...
C c /dʒ/ jump Charlie -.-.
Ç ç /tʃ/ cherry
D d /d/ dog Delta -..
E e /e/, [æ] bet Echo .
F f /f/ fan Foxtrot ..-.
G g /g/ or /ɟ/ go Golf --.
Ğ ğ /ɰ/ this letter lengthens the preceding vowel
H h /ha/ hat Hotel ....
I ı ɯ cousin India ..
İ i /i/ see
J j /ʒe/ measure Juliet .---
K k /ka/ kit Kilo -.-
L l /le/ lip Lima .-..
M m /me/ mat Mike --
N n /ne/ no November -.
O o /o/ note Oscar ---
Ö ö /ø/ cure
P p /pe/ pat Papa .--.
R r /ɾe/ r Romeo .-.
S s /se/ sap Sierra ...
Ş ş /ʃe/ ship
T t /te/ top Tango -
U u /u/ bot Uniform ..-
Ü ü /y/ as in the French "lune" with rounded lips
V v /ve/ vote Victor ...-
Y y /je/ yes Yankee -.--
Z z /ze/ zebra Zulu --..

How many letters in Turkish?

The Turkish alphabet comprises 29 letters.

The difference from English

The Turkish alphabet comprises 29 letters, diverging from the English alphabet with unique characters like Çç, Ğğ, Iı, İi, Öö, Şş, and Üü. Notably, Turkish lacks Qq, Ww, and Xx, though these letters might appear in borrowed terms. Pronunciation in Turkish follows phonetic rules, with letters typically representing consistent sounds, unlike English. Vowel harmony influences word endings and suffixes in Turkish, impacting both pronunciation and spelling. Some Turkish letters may resemble English ones but have distinct sounds, such as Cc pronounced like "j," Ss softer than in English, and Gg as in "go." These differences emphasize both the phonetic nature of Turkish and its unique pronunciation rules compared to English.

Turkish Vowels Letters

In Turkish, there are eight vowels. Here are the vowel letters in the Turkish alphabet:
  • Aa - Pronounced as "ah" in "father."
  • Ee - Pronounced as "eh" in "bet."
  • Iı - Pronounced as a short, unrounded "uh" sound.
  • İi - Pronounced as "ee" in "see."
  • Oo - Pronounced as "oh" in "go."
  • Öö - Similar to the German "ö," pronounced as a rounded "uh" sound.
  • Uu - Pronounced as "oo" in "boot."
  • Üü - Similar to the German "ü," pronounced as a rounded "ee" sound.
Turkish is a language that employs vowel harmony, which means the vowels in suffixes harmonize with the vowels in the word stems they are added to. This harmony involves the distinction between front vowels (e, i, ö, ü) and back vowels (a, ı, o, u), affecting word endings and suffixes to maintain consistency in pronunciation and spelling.

Turkish Consonants Letters

In Turkish, the consonants letters are as follows:
  • Bb - Pronounced as "be."
  • Cc - Pronounced similar to the "j" in "jump."
  • Çç - Pronounced similar to "ch" in "cherry."
  • Dd - Pronounced as "de."
  • Ff - Pronounced as "fe."
  • Gg - Pronounced as "ge."
  • Ğğ - This letter doesn't have its own sound but lengthens the preceding vowel.
  • Hh - Pronounced as "ha."
  • Jj - Pronounced similar to the "j" in "job."
  • Kk - Pronounced as "ke.".
  • Ll - Pronounced as "le."
  • Mm - Pronounced as "me."
  • Nn - Pronounced as "ne."
  • Pp - Pronounced as "pe."
  • Rr - Pronounced with a tapped "r" sound.
  • Ss - Pronounced as "se."
  • Şş - Pronounced as "sh" in "shoe."
  • Tt - Pronounced as "te."
  • Vv - Pronounced as "ve."
  • Yy - Pronounced as "ye."
  • Zz - Pronounced as "ze."
These consonant letters, combined with the vowels, form the basis of the Turkish language. The pronunciation of these letters generally remains consistent and follows phonetic rules.

Turkish Alphabet Notes

Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is also spoken in other regions and by smaller communities worldwide.

Regarding the number of countries where Turkish is spoken, it's primarily spoken in Turkey, where it's the official language. However, significant Turkish-speaking communities can also be found in neighboring countries, especially in parts of Cyprus, Greece, and Bulgaria. Additionally, Turkish-speaking communities exist in various countries due to migration and diaspora, notably in Europe (Germany, the Netherlands).

As for the number of speakers, there are approximately 80 to 90 million native speakers of Turkish worldwide. This number includes the population of Turkey and the Turkish diaspora in other countries.